The next step of the software for my calculator is multiplication. In Binary Coded Decimal (BCD) this is fairly straightforward. Every decimal place of the first number has to be multiplied by every decimal place of the second number. The tricky part is keeping the results lined up and then putting the decimal point in the right place at the end. Here is an example running on the MSP430:

One advantage of BCD is that it avoids the rounding errors that occur in floating point calculations. This quickly becomes apparent when you start multiplying decimal numbers. Even in this example using fairly small numbers there is a rounding error:

While working on this I was able to find a bug in my code for addition and fix it. I also added a function to shift numbers one decimal place so they will be aligned properly for multiplication. This routine is sometimes necessary since each byte holds two decimal numbers. Routines like this take up space in Flash, which is limited to 16K on value-line MSP430s. One way to avoid having to shift numbers is to let each byte represent one number instead of two. Although this would use twice as much RAM, it would simplify programming and use less space in Flash. This is what I will do if I run out of room for the firmware. Right now I plan to use 128K parallel SRAM chips from Alliance, so running out of RAM wouldn't be a problem. (Of course 8k of SRAM would have been enough but I don't have any of those with me.) Another option would be to write all or part of the BCD routines in assembly. This would help a lot since the MSP430 has an op-code to add BCD numbers. It also handles carries natively which is more efficient than storing it in a variable and checking it explicitly like my code does now. Currently, the program is only 3.3K including the part that handles the LCD. How much I can fit in the remaining Flash will determine what changes I make.

One advantage of BCD is that it avoids the rounding errors that occur in floating point calculations. This quickly becomes apparent when you start multiplying decimal numbers. Even in this example using fairly small numbers there is a rounding error:

Floating Point:For most uses floating point offers enough precision but a scientific calculator should be as accurate as possible, so BCD is a better choice.

835.2533 x 907.042 = 757609.823739

Binary Coded Decimal

835.2533 x 907.042 = 757609.8237386

While working on this I was able to find a bug in my code for addition and fix it. I also added a function to shift numbers one decimal place so they will be aligned properly for multiplication. This routine is sometimes necessary since each byte holds two decimal numbers. Routines like this take up space in Flash, which is limited to 16K on value-line MSP430s. One way to avoid having to shift numbers is to let each byte represent one number instead of two. Although this would use twice as much RAM, it would simplify programming and use less space in Flash. This is what I will do if I run out of room for the firmware. Right now I plan to use 128K parallel SRAM chips from Alliance, so running out of RAM wouldn't be a problem. (Of course 8k of SRAM would have been enough but I don't have any of those with me.) Another option would be to write all or part of the BCD routines in assembly. This would help a lot since the MSP430 has an op-code to add BCD numbers. It also handles carries natively which is more efficient than storing it in a variable and checking it explicitly like my code does now. Currently, the program is only 3.3K including the part that handles the LCD. How much I can fit in the remaining Flash will determine what changes I make.

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